In mathematics, multiplication is a very important concept. This is a mathematical method that helps in estimating the product of two or more numbers. Multiplication is used in everyday life. To grasp the learning of multiplication we need to first memorize the multiplication tables. The multiplication table will priorly range from 1 to 10. 

Suppose there are two whole numbers, natural numbers or integers – m and n, then if m is multiplied with n it will give a product effect. In Maths, multiplication is denoted by the ‘X’ (cross) symbol. Students are required to learn the basic multiplication table to solve sums of multiplication.  

Properties of Multiplication

The properties of multiplication are listed as follows:

  • Closure property
  • Commutative property
  • Associative property
  • Distributive property
  • Identity property
  • Zero property

Symbol of Multiplication

The multiplication symbol is denoted by an x (cross sign) or simply a dot (.). The cross sign is used in general but if the equation is a bit more on the complicated level, then to represent clearer it is represented with a dot. Some examples are as follows:

  • 7 × 11 = 77
  • 5 × 6 = 30
  • 8 × 2 × 8 = 128
  • (9).(5) = 45
  • (7).(2) = 14
  • 7 X 10 = 70

Formula Used for Multiplication

The formula used for multiplication is –

Multiplier × Multiplicand = Product
Now we will know what is Multiplier, Multiplicand, and Product

  • The multiplicand is the total number of data given in a group. 
  • The multiplier is the equal number of the group. 
  • Product is the result formed for the multiplier and multiplicand. 

Suppose – 4 X 8 = 32 

Here 4 is the multiplier, 8 is the multiplicand and 32 is the resultant product. 


Some examples of Multiplication are as follows:

  • 3 x 3 = 9
  • 4 x 6 = 24
  • 9 x 8 = 72
  • 6 x 6 = 36
  • 2 x 5 = 10
  • 10 x 10 = 100
  • 6 x 3 = 18


The meaning of ‘division’ is separating into two or other equal parts. The areas, classes, categories, groups are all divided in this mathematical method. In other words, division is the segregation of a whole thing in parts.
For example – a diagonal of a square gets divided into two triangles which form a triangle with equal area. The result of the operation may not an accurate integer, it may also be in the form of a fraction. 

Symbol of Division 

The symbol which is used to represent the divide or division is called the slash (/) or this ÷ as a symbol. The symbols are used accordingly as per the convenience of the sum. 

Formula Used for Division 

There are four important constituents of the method division, they are:

  1. Dividend
  2. Divisor 
  3. Quotient
  4. Remainder

The formula: 

Dividend ÷ Divisor = Quotient + Remainder.

In this case, 

The dividend is called the number which is being divided. 

The divisor is the other number that divides the dividend into equal parts. 

The quotient is the resultant value of the divisional operation. 

Let us consider an example for clearer understanding, 46/2

Here, 46 is the dividend
2 is the divisor
If 46 is divided by 2, we get the quotient as 23 and the remainder 0.

This was a topic that dealt with basic mathematical calculations – multiplication and division.  Students are required to practice more such example-related sums. To work fluently on mathematical calculations is to learn the multiplication table. The students right from an early age are advised to learn the multiplication table so that they can have a good grasp on these basic calculations of Maths. 

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